Research Matters Blog
The Upstream Project is a school-based program focused on youth homelessness prevention. Why schools? Because virtually every young person who becomes homeless was in school at one point, and very likely was in contact with an adult who knew something was wrong but didn’t know how to help.
Through a three-phase approach, The Upstream Project adapts the innovative evidence-based model from Australia’s The Geelong Project. These three phases are:
- Identifying and accessing youth using the proven screening method: The Students Needs Assessment;
- Connecting youth to services and providing wrap around case management to identified youth and their families;
- Measurement and replication: upon comprehensive program evaluation The Upstream Project will be replicated in communities across Canada.
When people first learn about The Geelong Project, they are often drawn in by the survey tool: a risk assessment completed by students directly in their classrooms. The survey on its own is a very exciting innovation, providing an incredible opportunity to gather data on the growing issue of youth homelessness.
In my role as Project Manager for The Upstream Project, however, I have discovered a deeper value of the survey tool. In championing the survey, we have been given an invaluable opportunity to engage in dialogue with school board administrations on how to address youth homelessness, together.
A core objective of The Geelong Project is to be responsive to the needs of youth in their communities and thus, reform systems to address their needs. In the Canadian context, we have begun this work be creating connections with school boards in two pilot communities: Niagara and York Region. By working in collaboration with the school boards to spearhead The Upstream Project, we have ignited a system reform process at the ground-level.
While the ultimate goal of The Upstream Project is to prevent youth homelessness, there are several key success indicators. The program aims to increase school engagement, secondary school graduation rates, and ensure access to safe, secure housing. A reduction of family breakdown, dropping out of school, and involvement in crime are aligned objectives.
This ambitious goal will in no doubt require a unified community response. With the support of local school boards, municipal partners and local community agencies, The Upstream Project will act as a catalyst for impactful service reform to take place at the community level.
In my presentation at the upcoming National Conference on Ending Homelessness, I will discuss The Upstream Project model in detail. This will include a description of the methodology and projected outcomes of the program, a ‘sneak peek’ at a toolkit being developed by COH to provide communities with the necessary resources to implement the program, and early learnings from 360˚kids and The RAFT, the two community agencies piloting The Upstream Project beginning in September 2016.
I look forward to sharing the journey of The Upstream Project to-date and engaging with thought leaders and innovators on how we can come together to create real impact in communities across the country.
This blog post is part of our series which highlights sessions of the 2016 National Conference on Ending Homelessness. Hear Elisa Traficante speak on Thursday, November 3rd at 3:30PM on the topic of ending youth homelessness through prevention and early interventions. Learn more about this upcoming conference presented by CAEH.
The Homeless Hub has written extensively on affordable housing across Canada, and the lack thereof. Just yesterday we released our 2016 State of Homelessness in Canada report, where we outlined how we can collectively prevent and end homelessness in Canada. However, I will keep this entry specifically on the topic of wait lists, and what can be done to support the housing needs of the homeless population and of those at-risk. Before going into further details, I will clarify what is meant by ‘social housing’ and ‘affordable housing’.
Social housing specifically refers to housing that is subsidized by the government. It provides safety and stability to people with low-income, and is the cheapest form of decent housing available in communities across Canada. On the other hand, Canada Mortgage and Housing Company (CMHC) defines affordable housing as being much broader and includes housing provided by the private, public and not-for-profit sectors as well as all forms of housing tenure (i.e. rental, ownership and cooperative ownership). It also includes temporary as well as permanent housing such as emergency shelters, transition housing and supportive housing.
According to CMHC, housing is considered affordable when a household spends less than 30% of its pre-tax income on adequate shelter. Households that spend more than 30% of their income on shelter are deemed to be in core housing need. Those that spend 50% or more on shelter are in severe housing need. CMHC reported that over 27% of Canadian households live in core housing need and 10.5% are in severe housing need. In other words, Canada is in a severe housing crisis.
As the private rental market is out of reach for those who are homeless and a heavy financial burden for those at-risk, it is essential that we find a way to deal with long wait list times and invest in alternate solutions beyond social housing.
Years-Long Wait for Housing
Over the years, social housing has become the go-to solution when discussing ways of finding homes for people staying in emergency shelters and transition housing. Unfortunately, it often takes years before a person or a family obtains a unit. The situation is so critical that many people give up after years of waiting and fall through ‘system cracks’ by couchsurfing, living in dangerous situations and/or environments, bouncing from shelter to shelter, or continuing to survive in core or severe housing need without any hopes of ever getting a social housing unit.
A number of municipalities and provinces publicize their social housing wait list figures, however, these numbers alone don’t provide a comprehensive picture of the supply and demand pressures for all types of affordable housing. What these numbers do provide is an important insight into the financial needs of many Canadian families and the urgency with which a government response is required to address this housing crisis.
With wages failing to keep up with the rising cost of private market housing, cities across Canada cannot keep up with the demand for social housing. Estimated numbers of households currently waiting far exceeds the supply:
- Fredericton: 500 households
- Montreal: 24,000 households
- Ottawa: 10,900 households
- Toronto: 90,900 households
- Vancouver: 9,500 households
- Winnipeg: 2,855 households
Canada has invested very little in building and maintaining social housing infrastructure in the last 25 years. As a result, there are tens of thousands of households on city wait lists and thousands of social housing units needing urgent repairs, which add to the growing wait times. The good news is that there is renewed interest in investing in housing by the federal government. The Government of Canada is currently looking into developing and implementing a National Housing Strategy.
So what can be done to meet the housing needs of homeless people and those at-risk? To achieve this, a full range of options and services is necessary to address the present situation. I will mention some of them below, but for a complete look at our recommendations for the National Housing Strategy please see our State of Homelessness in Canada 2016 report.
Increase Funding for Prevention
Preventing homelessness by providing supportive services to those at-risk is an effective way of keeping people housed in the private rental market. Eviction prevention practices are key to keeping individuals and families in their homes and avoid homelessness altogether. A recent study found that providing supportive services to those at-risk of homelessness is a cost-effective strategy to a secure pathway to healthy and long-term housing.
Homeward Trust’s eviction prevention program supports people with financial assistance for rental subsidies while connecting households with employment, health, and income support agencies. For those where eviction is for certain, efforts are made to re-house tenants on a timely basis, thus preventing homelessness and years of waiting to be housed again.
Engaging the private sector to build affordable housing for low and moderate-income families and individuals is essential to increasing the affordable housing stock. The City of Toronto offers incentives to developers to build affordable housing through their new Open Door program. Incentives include waiving permit fees, streamlining the application process and deferring development charges.
Additionally, some service providers have also developed partnerships with private landlords, which could be a promising solution for rural communities where developers are not building new homes. We have previously written about the number of ways to engage landlords as a service agency.
Build New Social Housing Units & Fund Maintenance
Thousands of rental units were built annually across Canada in the 60s and 70s but this trend has not continued. Not only do we need to increase the social housing stock but also deal with aging buildings that have extensive backlog of repairs and require major renovations. Maintaining buildings has been found to have economic, health, environmental, and social benefits for people living in social housing but also for entire communities. The lack of investments on repairs can force families out of their homes if not addressed immediately and would worsen the housing crisis.
The basic underlying approach of Housing First is that people are better able to move forward with their lives if they are first housed. Housing is not contingent upon some type of compliance but rather a rights-based intervention that all people deserve housing. Under this key principle, people experiencing homelessness have a chance of accessing housing through different housing models including independent private rental units with on-call supports, permanent supportive housing or congregate housing.
The Lux offered by RainCity in Vancouver provides 25 supportive housing units to people coping with substance use, mental health and physical concerns. The length of stay depends of each resident’s unique needs but they are supported with securing permanent housing while staying at the Lux.
Let’s Talk Housing
Canada is the last G8 country without a national housing strategy. The situation is so dire that in 2009, the UN Special Rapporteur on Housing declared the state of affairs in Canada a national emergency. A national housing strategy would call on all levels of government to work together to address some of the challenges that emerged in the last three decades from the lack of investments in affordable housing including the rise of homelessness.
The Government of Canada has been asking for feedback on what should be included in the National Housing Strategy and today is the last day to submit your views! Make your voice heard by sharing your ideas, taking a brief survey or submitting your views in writing at letstalkhousing.ca.
This post is part of our Friday "Ask the Hub" blog series. Have a homeless-related question you want answered? E-mail us at firstname.lastname@example.org and we will provide a research-based answer.
Today, the Canadian Observatory on Homelessness and the Canadian Alliance to End Homelessness are releasing The State of Homelessness in Canada 2016. In this year’s report, we consider how - through the introduction of a National Housing Strategy – we can collectively prevent and end homelessness in Canada.
Since 1993 and the federal disinvestment in housing, more and more people have found themselves homeless or at risk of homelessness. Despite this, Canada is the only G8 country without a national strategy on homelessness. It is then not surprising that stakeholders across the country were encouraged by the announcement that the Government of Canada has committed to a National Housing Strategy.
The National Housing Strategy – with a clear priority on ending homelessness and a funding commitment to do so – presents us with an unprecedented and overdue opportunity to make progress towards ending homelessness.
The federal government is undergoing consultations until October 21, 2016 through letstalkhousing.ca and will release the results on November 22, 2016 (National Housing Day). The State of Homelessness 2016 provides a roadmap for the way forward. It includes joint recommendations, authored by the COH and CAEH, on how the National Housing Strategy can serve as a catalyst for better, more suitable solutions to preventing and ending homelessness.
Preventing and ending homelessness
In the last few years, many have started to recognize that housing is a human right. To embrace a human rights approach, we must make a more concerted effort to ensure that wherever possible homelessness is prevented. If we cannot prevent it, we must ensure that occurrences of homelessness are brief and non-recurring. This must be at the core of our National Housing Strategy.
Encouragingly, we have solutions at our disposable to address the latter. Housing First has proven to move people out of homelessness quickly, while providing the supports they need to stay housed. A National Housing Strategy, as we’ve recommended, should embrace, invest and scale this model of accommodation.
Unfortunately, preventing homelessness is something Canada has made less progress on. However, as discussed in our recent blog post, Let’s Talk Housing & Prevention, that is beginning to change. We ask that in addition to prioritizing Housing First, the government of Canada embrace a homelessness prevention framework.
Fortunately, we can learn from the communities, provinces and territories that are making progress. Ontario, Quebec, Alberta and Newfoundland and Labrador are leading the way provincially. Locally, Medicine Hat is on the cusp of ending homelessness and Hamilton is showing huge success with Housing First. However, we need long-term, stable funding if we want these successes to grow. That’s where the National Housing Strategy comes in.
Our report outlines eight key recommendations for the National Housing Strategy. We are calling on the government to invest $43.788 billion over 10 years through the National Housing Strategy – only $50 more per Canadian annually than we’re currently spending. For less than $1 per week per person, in added investment, we can effectively prevent and end homelessness in Canada.
The following recommendations focus on two areas: addressing homelessness and expanding the supply of affordable housing.
Addressing Homelessness in Canada
Recommendation #1: The government should adopt a national goal of ending homelessness with clear and measurable outcomes, milestones and criteria
There should be a commitment to ending homelessness at the national level that includes an emphasis on Housing First, a focus on prevention, and an effort to improve how different local systems coordinate with one another, among other principles.
Recommendation #2: Renewal of the Homelessness Partnering Strategy
The Homelessness Partnering Strategy funds 61 communities across Canada to develop local solutions to preventing and ending homelessness. The Homelessness Partnering Strategy should be renewed in 2019 for ten years with substantial and long-term funding to ensure consistency and stability for programs working to prevent and end homelessness.
Recommendation #3: A new federal/provincial/territorial framework agreement that defines local leadership on homelessness and housing investment
All orders of government have a responsibility to prevent and end homelessness. The National Housing Strategy should include a framework that clearly identifies the roles and responsibilities that each actor should play in the collective effort to prevent and end homelessness.
Recommendation #4: Targeted strategies to address the needs of priority populations
In order to respond to the unique needs of different groups of people experiencing homelessness, the National Housing Strategy should adopt tailored, evidence-based solutions for groups such as youth, Indigenous Peoples and veterans.
Addressing Affordable Housing in Canada
Recommendation #5: Retain and expand existing affordable housing stock
We need to make up for the loss of affordable housing that began in 1993. This means keeping the affordable housing units we do have and building new ones through a variety of innovative means.
Recommendation #6: Implement a National Housing Benefit
Like the child tax benefit, a national housing benefit would give low income Canadians a monthly tax credit that would help keep people housed, thus preventing homelessness.
Recommendation #7: Affordable housing tax credit
An affordable housing tax credit will give private equity investors reductions in federal income tax for dollars invested in affordable housing projects.
Recommendation #8: Review and expand investment in affordable housing for Indigenous peoples
We need an audit of the housing situation on reserve so that we know where we’re at. With that information in hand, programs like an Indigenous Innovation Demonstration Fund can be used to find solutions to the housing challenges Indigenous Peoples face on and off reserve.
For further information on our report, including more detailed recommendations, you can download the State of Homelessness in Canada 2016. If you have not yet submitted your feedback on the proposed National Housing Strategy, we encourage you to do so at letstalkhousing.ca, prior to tomorrow’s deadline.
Remember, we can end homelessness in Canada – if we want to.
October 10th was World Homeless Day, an annual occasion on an international stage that brings attention to the needs of people experiencing homelessness and provides opportunities for communities across the world to get involved in responding to homelessness. The initiative encourages both community members and politicians alike to engage in and take critical steps towards combatting homelessness.
Unfortunately, homelessness is an issue that is deeply stigmatized, as many of us are socialized to believe in common misconceptions about homelessness. Some of these misconceptions are that homelessness is a choice, that all individuals experiencing homelessness are addicted to drugs and/or alcohol, do not want to work or that homelessness is simply an inevitability. However, none of these notions are true and are harmful attitudes that impede solutions towards addressing and alleviating the causes of homelessness. Furthermore, defining homelessness as an individualized issue, rather than as a result of a combination of structural factors, system failures and individual and relational factors, leads to actions which are sorely misguided, counterproductive, costly and inefficient.
In order to develop the right solutions, we need an accurate portrayal of the problem. That is why the COH developed a definition of homelessness that is useable, understandable and uniquely Canadian yet allows for national and international comparison. Homelessness is a multi-faceted issue that is much bigger than a matter of individual choice. Indeed, as homelessness is an epidemic that touches individuals regardless of race, gender, religion and all nations globally, with an estimated 100 million to one billion or more worldwide (depending on how homelessness is defined), we as a society are all responsible.
Today’s blog post discusses the vital role that community services play in the lives of those at-risk of or who are experiencing homelessness. Community services refer to any programs delivered through non-profit or faith-based community organizations. These programs can be funded by donations or government grants, and are ran by staff, students and/or volunteers. Services offered by organizations include, but are not limited to, food and clothing banks, health and mental health services, activities for ‘at-risk’ youth like counseling or sports, supportive services for families, women or LGBTQ2S individuals, employment services, settlement services, access to internet and shelter accommodation.
Having a diverse range of services is critical for those with complex needs, such as individuals facing homelessness. Not only do they require stable, secure and affordable housing, but also require a diverse range of supportive services tailored according to the gender they identify with, their psychological needs, cultural background, sexual orientation, disability and/or geographical location. For instance, mental health supports are critical, as research shows that people experiencing homelessness tend to have a higher prevalence of mental illness than the general population.
At times, however, access to services simply is not a possibility. For individuals living in remote communities, supportive services are limited and scarce, and migration to larger centers to access services away from one’s community is common. For those experiencing homelessness in larger cities, a plethora of services may be available, yet inaccessible to some due to discrimination based on race, gender, sexual orientation, addictions to illicit substances, mental illness and/or disabilities. Often times, navigating supportive services for a wide range of complex needs can be an overwhelming task, especially without a stable address, health card, ID or form of reliable transportation. Furthermore, where failures in coordinating services occur, some systems may be discharging people into homelessness.
The role of community services in addressing homelessness
As stated earlier, the role of community services in the lives of those who are at-risk of or experiencing homelessness is indispensable. At this moment in time, Canada generally has an emergency response approach to homelessness that manages, rather than provides any long-term solutions to homelessness, placing significant strain on emergency services like shelters and food banks. Although there will always be a need for emergency responses, a shift in focus to prevention and accommodation and supports is needed to truly eliminate homelessness. More and more organizations across the nation are starting to implement a Housing First approach, a best practice for ending homelessness that involves moving people who experience homelessness into permanent housing as quickly as possible and providing them with additional services and supports as needed. As such, community services play a vital role in ensuring that individuals have choice and access to services that can address any number of their complex needs.
For example, COSTI Immigrant Services has been a leader in settlement and citizenship services for newcomers to Toronto and the GTA for over 20 years. COSTI also offers a variety of services including mental health supports, employment and youth services as well as supports for women seeking to overcome economic, health, legal, and cultural barriers. COSTI also provides access to housing supports for individuals with limited income, who are new to Canada and who are homeless or in danger of becoming homeless. These services are critical among newcomer women facing domestic abuse, for instance, as research finds that often times newcomer women will not leave their abusers due to fear of deportation, a lack of knowledge regarding their rights, financial dependency on their abuser or lack of awareness of the community resources available to them.
The 519, also located in Toronto, is committed to the health, happiness and full participation of the LGBTQ2S community and works to promote inclusion, understanding and respect. Through their supportive services and inclusive spaces, the 519 is accessible to the evolving needs of the LGBTQ2S community that range from counseling, queer parenting, housing services, Coming Out groups and much more. These services are particularly crucial as one Toronto study found that 20% of youth in shelter systems identify as LGBTQ2S, which is more than twice the rate for all age groups. Furthermore, LGBTQ2S youth are at a higher risk of homelessness due to homophobia and transphobia in the home and they often face the same discrimination in the shelter system.
Places such as Insite – North America’s first supervised injection site in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside continues to achieve life-saving results for its patrons. In addition to providing detox services, Insite also provides liaison with community supports to housing for those who require it. Substance use and addiction is a commonly cited health issue among individuals experiencing homelessness, where some may utilize injection drug use as a coping mechanism in dealing with the stressors of being unhoused. When accessing necessary health services, research shows that those experiencing homelessness and addiction often face stigmatization on the part of health professionals. Therefore, addiction and health care services that offer judgment-free supports like Insite are crucial in assisting individuals experiencing homelessness and addiction in gaining access to the care they need.
Employment services also play a crucial role in the lives of individuals at-risk of or experiencing homelessness. When a person is homeless and unemployed, getting back into the workforce can be a challenge. Employment services, then, are crucial for individuals experiencing homelessness as they work to increase hire-ability. For instance, Youth Employment Services (YES) Street To Jobs initiative works to employ young people who are at-risk of becoming homeless. Through the program, youth are provided with individualized supports, skills training, work placements, referrals and more with permanent housing and financial self-sufficiency as the ultimate goal.
As crucial as employment services are, employment is only one piece of the puzzle in ensuring an individual attains and maintains housing. Canada’s transition to a service-based employment sector has resulted in the proliferation of low-wage, precarious and insecure labour, and assisting individuals in accessing employment will only be successful if there are good, stable, living-wage jobs available. One way that this is being done is through the role of social enterprises. Social enterprises are companies that reinvest any profits and revenue back into the organization and its employees, rather than into the pockets of shareholders or executives. As a key tenant, social enterprises often work to employ those from backgrounds that often face discrimination in hiring practices, such as individuals with disabilities or histories of substance use and addiction. Places like Out of this World café in Toronto, or Coco café in Naimano, BC are social enterprises breaking down barriers and ensuring everyone regardless of abilities, health, mental health or housing status are given a fair chance.
These are just a few examples of the crucial work being done by a wide range of community services around the country. However, larger structural issues such as reverting the decline in Canada’s social safety net as well as changes across all sectors such as secure, living-wage employment, access to education and consistently funded community services are all necessary to make meaningful, long-term changes in the lives of those experiencing homelessness with complex needs. In addition, community services need to be accessible to all individuals, where stigma is no longer cited as a barrier to accessing help.
As we circle back to the issue of stigma, it is crucial that as we go about our daily lives, we treat societal issues, like homelessness and those experiencing homelessness with compassion, understanding and kindness. For example, as a teacher or parent perhaps implementing lessons to children regarding homelessness will help counteract stigma at an earlier age. If you have any questions about homelessness, browse the Hub’s selection of comprehensive resources. Don’t see an answer to your question? You can always ask the hub and we will provide a research-based answer!
There are also a number of programs available to those who are homeless or at-risk of facing homelessness:
- Street Survival Guide for those experiencing homelessness in Victoria, BC
- Find a food bank in Canada
- A Canadian resource guide for Indigenous women escaping domestic violence
- Emergency shelters in Toronto
- City of Toronto guide for information about services that help one stay healthy and housed
- Canada wide community and social services directory
- Youth employment toolkit
- Navigating mental health services in Toronto: A guide for newcomer communities
- LGBTQ2S Ontario-based support line & referral database
- 211: Canada’s primary source of information on government and community based health and social services
- Organizations in British Columbia with a focus on servicing Indigenous populations
If you would like to suggest or know of any other community services kindly leave them in the comments!
The YWCA is the largest and longest serving women’s organization in Calgary. We offer programs that create a continuum of service for women, and their families who are struggling with poverty, homelessness, domestic abuse and isolation. Through our 105 year history, we recognize the need to change and modify our programs to the ever evolving needs of women in our community. Our focus is on empowering women to move from a place of vulnerability to one of resilience, and we continue to be there when and where she needs us most. To ensure we know and understand who we support, why we are here and how we approach our work, in early 2016 we released our Practice Framework.
Our Practice Framework is a document that outlines our philosophy of the way that we work with women. The framework is not just a piece of paper; it is a commitment to what we do and how we do it. We approach our work from a woman’s point of view with an understanding of oppression, inequity and constrained choice that women experience. We work to build up women, community and culture. Moving forward, our aim is to promote evidence-based best practice with a unified approach from frontline client service to support services and advocacy.
Our goal is to ensure that all women who are experiencing abuse, poverty, social isolation and/or homelessness have access to our services. To that end, we strive to offer anti-oppressive, low barrier, inclusive service that is reflective of what women share in common as well as their differences. Our approach to all service is woman-centered and takes a feminist, intersectional and anti-oppressive approach.
The focus of our service delivery is based on three areas: rigour in service delivery, depth in service delivery and excellence in service delivery. We want to ensure our work has a clear vision and focus; we intend to develop our expertise and we are known for our continuum of service delivery that supports a woman’s mind, body and spirit. With our focus clear and articulated our framework developed from conversations with frontline staff, leadership and external stakeholders. The foundations of our approach are based on seven guiding principles:
- Safety first
- Violence-informed and trauma sensitive
- Women-centered and feminist-based
- Intersectional and anti-oppressive approaches
- Inclusive, low-barrier services
- Harm reduction
- Support for women as mothers: linking the safety and well-being of women and their children
Safety is a fundamental tenet of women’s support services and is at the centre of all of our decisions. Our responsibility is to ensure that women and their families feel safe, physically and emotionally while receiving services at the YWCA.
A violence-informed and trauma sensitive approach means that we broadly implement violence-informed and trauma sensitive policies and practices that create a safe environment, respectful and caring relationships and to avoid re-traumatizing women.
Women-centered and feminist-based frameworks acknowledge that women have different lived experiences than men and require services that focus on equality and equity goals.
At the YWCA, intersectional and anti-oppressive approaches mean women will have the opportunity to explore how their various social identities and experiences intersect and impact their experiences of violence, access to services, the kind of support they receive and how relevant and meaningful the support is. This can counter women’s experiences of oppression and vulnerability.
Inclusive, low-barrier services approach recognizes how difficult it is for all women to access support, and some women face additional systemic barriers. Our practice must reflect a commitment to reducing systemic barriers.
Harm reduction is a specific approach that aims to keep people safe and minimize the serious and often life-threatening consequences of a variety of high-risk behaviours, particularly substance use. At the YWCA, harm reduction involves a broad range of support services and strategies to enhance women’s knowledge, skills, resources, and supports.
Support for women as mothers means that women living in poverty or isolation or living with an abusive partner can undermine women’s ability to mother their children the way they wish to. We will support the mother and child bond and avoid any interventions that diminish women’s capacity to parent.
We are stating our belief in an approach that recognizes the unique factors that are a part of women’s experiences of violence, oppression and homelessness. We will not repeat these dynamics in our relationships with women we support.
Specific to the Housing and Supports programs, the framework has driven a shift in many of our approaches that have increased our staff capacity in role specialization and outreach. Our low-barrier services are currently working with women who identify as the highest vulnerability across Calgary who are now being supported to find housing. We believe that building a trusting relationship with women is key to providing safety, and this is where we see our success.
This blog post is part of our series which highlights sessions of the 2016 National Conference on Ending Homelessness. Hear Ashley Jellema speak on Thursday, November 3rd at 3:30PM on the topic of reducing homelessness for women through trauma‐informed inclusive services. Learn more about this upcoming conference presented by CAEH at: http://conference.caeh.ca/.
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The analysis and interpretations contained in the blog posts are those of the individual contributors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Canadian Observatory on Homelessness.