Research Matters Blog

Canadian Observatory on Homelessness/Homeless Hub: York University
June 24, 2016
Categories: Ask the Hub

Homelessness can be tough to discuss with children because it can lead to conversations about many other complex topics, but it is possible. How we talk to children about homelessness depends on their age and how they best learn, as well as the discussion context (home with family or caregivers; or at school with teachers).

Eleanor's portrait of homeTalking with children as parents/caregivers

Of course, the “best” tactic here is the one that the parents/caregivers are most comfortable with – they know the kids best! That said, these early talks have a profound effect on how kids understand homelessness and people experiencing it. As Betsy Brown Braun wrote for The Huffington Post blog last year, many kids haven’t yet formed opinions about homelessness, so these conversations are crucial:

It is important to understand that homelessness is not a “loaded” issue for the child... yet. His questions about a homeless person usually stem from genuine curiosity. That person doesn’t fall into any of the categories of people with whom he is familiar. He is not passing judgment; he is wondering. The young child’s initial impression is heavily influenced by the parent’s affect, actions, and responses to his questions. And it is by observation of the parent that the child first gets his cues about how to react and feel. So, as you answer your child’s questions, be aware of the attitude you may be projecting.

Further on in the post, she states that we should aim to convey compassion and empathy in our responses. Given the immense degree of stigma and discrimination that people experiencing homelessness face every day, I completely agree. So what might those kinds of responses look like?

With younger children, I’ve been told that the simpler the answer is, the better. For example, here is how my sister responded to my six-year-old niece when she first asked why someone was sleeping on the sidewalk:

I explained to her that they are just like us but things have happened in their lives that have brought them to this point. I told her that we are lucky to have the resources and support we have; and that they sometimes need support, so that’s why we give them money or food when we have it. I didn’t have to go much further than that, but more questions tend to come later.  

My niece probably isn’t fully ready to understand concepts like poverty, family conflict, class inequality, trauma, and all the other major pathways to homelessness; but she is able to understand the need to help people and not blame them for their circumstances. In a few sentences, my sister conveyed that homelessness isn’t caused by any one thing, that it can happen to anyone, and that housing in our society is a privilege. As children get older and ask deeper questions, responses can grow accordingly.            

Talking to kids as educators

The Homeless Hub’s Education section has a number of lesson plans and suggested activities for children of all ages. (Many of these resources will be helpful to parents and other caregivers as well.) In 2009, the Homelessness and Housing Umbrella Group (HHUG) created a number of resources for educators in the Waterloo, Ontario region. Though some of the materials are area-specific, they can be customized for any municipality. Similarly, its general guidelines for classroom discussions about homelessness are appropriate for any education context:

Encourage open discussion about what students know about homelessness and about any questions they might have.

Address stereotypes as they arise with facts (i.e., The Truth about Homelessness, p.6-8).

Help students become more aware of what their home means to them. Link what their home means to them to how they might feel if they did not have a home.

Explain that being homeless means that one does not have a place to call home. It might be for a day or two or for many weeks or months. Talk about how difficult it is.

Help students understand that being homeless doesn’t mean that someone has done something wrong. It isn’t an illness and it certainly isn’t anything someone wants. It can be a result of difficult times in a person’s life.

Discuss the different places people might live if they don’t have a home (i.e., shelter,car, with friends).

Explain that there are single people, families, and children who do not have a home.

Read stories and books about people from all walks of life and/or about homelessness (p.37). Help students to realize that in spite of differences, people experience many of the same feelings.

Conclude discussions of homelessness with ideas about how students and communities can help people who don’t have a home (p.37).

In terms of specific activities, primary-level students need to build a basic understanding of poverty and homelessness. This integrated unit was developed in Toronto in 2008 and can be used in a variety of classes and grades. Activities include reading picture books like Fly Away Home and reflecting on the characters and the meaning of home, true/false exercises, mock food and utility budgets, creating multimedia and/or poetry quilts, and more.

At the secondary-level, students can gain a deeper understanding of homelessness through more advanced activities. One example is this unit on learning about homelessness through drama (grades 9-12, can be modified for 6-8), which includes a simulated emergency relocation and other exercises that have students imagine what it might be like to be homeless. These activities all encourage empathy through experience. To see how some Markham, Ontario students responded to learning through drama, check out their five Street Stories.

Do you have any suggestions or favourite resources on addressing homelessness with children that you’d like to share? Leave us a comment here or post them in our Community Workspace

This post is part of our Friday "Ask the Hub" blog series. Have a homeless-related question you want answered? E-mail us at and we will provide a research-based answer.

Photo: "Home" drawn by Eleanor in 2003 at Edmunds Elementary School, Unsheltered Lives: An Interdiscplinary Resource and Activity Guide for Teaching About Homelessness in Grades K-12

For the Dream Team, Toronto
June 23, 2016

Housing stability is a complicated topic. There is very little agreement on what stability actually means. For some, supportive housing stability might mean that people with historically erratic tenancy and eviction patterns come to remain housed in one place for a longer period of time; for others it might mean that their quality of life in housing has improved sufficiently to begin to work again, regain lost relationships or successfully manage health. Regardless of what stability might ideally mean, we can all agree that stability is a good thing and we want to make it the common experience for people. If this does not happen, the result is pretty simple: people come to live in precarious housing situations and we know that many of these people will end up in some kind of homelessness.

One of the most serious threats to housing stability is a phenomenon called “Cuckooing” in the U.K., and involves the commandeering of a home by unwanted parties, often for the purpose of drug trafficking. There is surprisingly little in the way of research directly linked to this phenomenon anywhere that I could find. In fact, in Canada, only Crime Prevention Ottawa (2013) has produced a study for the rest of us to look at.

In the CPO study, the problem is discussed as Housing Unit Takeovers (CPO, 2013:1). In the Ottawa study, it was discovered that approximately ¾ of front line workers surveyed had encountered the problem with their clients, some as often as ten times. No one actually knows how many takeovers have occurred in Ottawa or anywhere else because this data is particularly difficult to obtain, yet the CPO study and preliminary research for a similar study in Toronto suggest that the problem is not restricted to social or supportive housing, but occurs frequently in regular market and privately owned housing as well. In fact, in the latter categories, we have fairly little chance of really knowing how vast the problem might be. There is more urgency to address the issue in publicly supported housing because, for the most part, the most vulnerable tenants are found in this sector.

Housing Unit takeovers occur when housing predators use drugs, violence, sex, economic and social supports to manipulate tenants into accommodating unwanted occupations of their housing space. Takeovers are widespread in Toronto where The Dream Team, partly funded by the City of Toronto Community Safety Initiative, has begun exploratory research into the problem. “The Dream Team began as a group of consumer/survivors and family members dedicated to demonstrating the life-altering benefits of supportive housing for people living with mental illness, while reducing mental health stigma". Today, the Dream Team is a consumer/survivor group and they operate out of their sponsoring agency, Houselink Community Homes. 

The current project is called the Safe At Home Project (SAH). They are currently looking for resident and non-resident participants for their surveys and interviews. In pre-study discussions with frontline staff and staff focus groups, 100% (N=approximately 15) admitted to experiencing takeovers in the lives of their clients, and additionally, more troubling, to feeling absolutely helpless about how to deal with the problem.

Takeovers happen because many tenants are vulnerable. Vulnerability is also a difficult concept to define. Vulnerability is most obvious in the following tenant groups: people who are poor; people with physical and mental illnesses; single working mothers; the elderly, and addicts, including alcoholics and sex addicts. The nature of these particular dependencies will be addressed in further posts about this research. But here, it is important to recognize just as CPO had suggested, that vulnerability is really a way of saying that certain people are more likely to make bad decisions about who they let into their homes and their lives when the supports to address or reduce the harm caused by having unmet real needs are not present.

Because of this propensity to “let” people in, CPO and even preliminary research for Safe At Home, imagines a “complicit victim” (CPO, 2013:2). Those optics look bad. They suggest a tenant who “wants” the takeover to happen. This is not true. Even though the tenant might knowingly let a drug dealer use his or her apartment to deal out of in exchange for drugs, this should in no way suggest that the complicit victim is to be blamed for the result. In fact, one of the reasons that so few people come forward to discuss the problem is they fear being blamed – and it is this blame the victim discourse that stands in the way of “Outting” the issue properly.

Takeovers are not simple either. In one case discussed by frontline staff in the SAH, an elderly man is a victim of takeovers because of the complex nature of his needs. First he is elderly and poor, lonely and self-medicates, and suffers a developmental issue, so he is a perfect storm of sorts where his multiple vulnerabilities make him an easy target. He had taken to letting strippers from a downtown Toronto club use his apartment after their shifts. According to this elderly man, they would provide him drugs, sex and use his apartment to entertain their “johns”. But he wanted it to stop. After some counseling and discussion, he had discussed how he wanted to stop these people from bothering him, but he had become fearful that when he left his unit they would retaliate. So he let the problem continue and to date, there really is no practical intervention available, except to perhaps involve Police Services. But I think we can all see where that might be a problem for someone who is fearful to begin with. So one of the key issues with these takeovers is that once they start, they seem impossible to end amicably.

There are more consequences than merely being afraid, CPO sites illegal activities in the home, violence, abuse, theft, financial exploitation and more. Once again the end game of most concern to me as a homelessness researcher: takeovers often lead to eviction and a return to unstable housing or homelessness. What we need to do is really understand the size and shape of the issue before throwing in the towel.

Once again, the anatomy of a takeover will be discussed in a subsequent blog. However, with this seemingly implacable problem, the only way to really address the issue is to prevent it from happening in the first place. To some degree we can try to filter out predators from entering housing spaces.   But this is very problematic. So we also need to help vulnerable people understand when they are in the midst of a lifestyle that could lead to a takeover. One of the things CPO had done very well was to produce a series of practical videos and toolkits for advocates, tenants and others to use to inform and to prevent takeovers. It is this goal that drives the SAH as well.

Over the next 8 months, Safe At Home will be using interviews, surveys, public addresses and focus groups to explore the scope and types of housing unit takeovers in a sample of Toronto’s housing community. Special care has been taken to ensure the anonymity of participants. The goal is to devise a toolkit for tenants and housing providers and to help the city formally address this hidden but widespread problem. If you are interested in participating please do not hesitate to contact SAH.

Safe At Home Housing Unit Takeover Task Force

Lead researcher - Eric Weissman Ph.D. at (ph. 416.516.1422 Ext. 251)
Dream Team Coordinator - Joanna Pawelkiewicz at (ph.416.516.1422 Ext. 262).

Homeless Hub
June 20, 2016
Categories: Topics

One of the challenges in understanding and responding to homelessness is that it is often framed as an urban, inner-city phenomenon. With the majority of the Canadian population living within two hundred kilometers of the United States border, most infrastructure investments have been made in larger cities. These investments include the building of shelters, drop-in centres, housing and the provision of essential services for the homeless population. To date, most research on homelessness has concentrated on urban populations, but in recent years, research from rural and northern communities has begun to emerge.

Who is Homeless?

The factors that lead to homelessness in cities can also lead to homelessness in rural areas and small communities of northern Canada. These factors include a lack of rental housing, poverty, discrimination, violence, mental health and substance use. However, the literature is limited and further research is required to better understand the distinct needs of women and their children, youth, immigrants, refugees and seniors in rural settings.

In Canada, Indigenous Peoples are over-represented in the homeless population. However, the extent of this is unknown in rural communities (not including the North). The literature frequently reports Indigenous Peoples’ housing and homelessness as a separate issue that requires examination within the context of colonialism and its legacies. In addition, researchers have reported on regional migration patterns, the need for affordable housing and the role of mental health and substance use, violence, unemployment, and the child welfare system in perpetuating homelessness. Research points to the need to recognize the factors and needs of Indigenous Peoples on and off reserves in rural and northern settings.

The Challenges

Homelessness in the North is a complex issue. First, the high costs of the region and the severe lack of social infrastructure makes homelessness difficult to address without significant financial commitment. Second, the high level of poverty in the North means that there are increased pressures on individuals and families to be able to provide for themselves. Third, the cold experienced during the winter makes surviving without shelter impossible, often forcing people to live in spaces unfit for human habitation.

When people in rural areas or northern communities face homelessness, they may choose to couch surf or even endure unbearable situations including abuse or living in overcrowded homes. Referred to as being hidden homeless, this population doesn’t access homeless supports and services even though they are improperly housed, thus hindering the further development and funding of these services. The lack of services and supports means that many are otherwise forced to leave their community and migrate to a larger urban area in order to access services. Relocating may mean escaping one set of problems, but can lead to others including isolation and/or unemployment. Additionally, service providers in larger towns close-by are stretched thin by the influx of rural residents seeking services.

Other challenges in rural and northern homelessness:

  • Non-existent public transportation makes it difficult to access everyday services and get to and from work without a car.
  • The lack of privacy may lead to the stigmatization of people experiencing homelessness as “problem individuals”. This reduces their already limited options in finding a landlord who will rent to them as well as an employer who will hire them.
  • A study found that the boom and bust cycles of the energy and mineral sector increase the living costs beyond affordability for vulnerable local residents in communities reliant on these sectors for economic prosperity.
  • Relationship breakdowns may lead to additional challenges for partners who depend on each other for the maintenance and income generating activities of the farm.
  • The lack of information from some areas makes it difficult to assess the specific nuances of some regions. Without evidence-based solutions at the policy levels, the responses to rural and northern homelessness will remain limited.  

Moving Forward

The unique context of rural and northern communities requires specific approaches meeting the local dynamics and environment. Ending homelessness in rural and northern communities is absolutely possible, and a number of them have stepped up their leadership to make this happen:

  1. In Banff, Alberta, the Homelessness to Housing Coalition has been providing longer stays for those in need in the past few years. With new funding, they have been able to support clients with job search assistance as well as create a bridging and loan program assisting clients secure long-term housing.
  2. Youth in Seabird Island Band in British Columbia are benefiting from their Youth Job Readiness Program. The program supports on-reserve youth ages 18 to 24 with skills training and finding meaningful jobs that fit with their long-term goals.
  3. Since 2008, the Small Communities Homelessness Fund in the Northwest Territories has been helping northern communities create their own solutions to homelessness and build capacity at the local level. A number of Indigenous-led organizations have been able to provide meal programs, food vouchers and renovate their shelters over the years.
  4. A number of rural communities in Newfoundland have each hired an outreach worker whose main focus is to liaise with landlords to ensure clients remain housed.
  5. And in 2012, the community of Steinbach, Manitoba, pooled funds to open a shelter in a single family residential home. Longer term, single family homes could be operated as affordable housing.

These are just a few examples of the many rural and northern initiatives addressing homelessness.

As we mark National Aboriginal Day, communities across Canada are sharing Indigenous and northern success stories in reducing poverty, fostering education and preventing violence through community-led projects while celebrating the outstanding contributions of First Nations, Métis and Inuit Peoples. It is an important time to discuss the concerted efforts required to best meet the needs of Indigenous communities while acknowledging their leadership in improving the health and social wellbeing of rural and northern communities across Canada.


Photo credit: Government of Canada, Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada

Canadian Observatory on Homelessness/Homeless Hub: York University
June 17, 2016
Categories: Ask the Hub

This question came from Rae T. via our latest website survey.

Think of how painful bureaucratic processes are in your day-to day: filling out forms, constantly proving who you are, making sure you have the right papers and cards, paying fees, and so on. For some of us, it might be easy – we’re used to it. For others, it takes a high level of ability, patience and organization to not just give up on whatever identification (ID) they’re trying to get.

ID and homelessnessPeople experiencing homelessness often have difficulty getting or keeping their ID. As the writers of the Alberta Systemic Barriers to Housing Initiatives report explain: “Photo identification is required as part of the application process which can be costly and complex. Streetinvolved life circumstances create vulnerability to losing ID or having it stolen.”

If you’ve ever lost or had any ID stolen, you know how difficult and costly it can be to replace these items. For people living in poverty, paying fees for cards is either impossible or not a priority. And the fees can be significant. For example, in June 2014, an Alberta Identification Card cost $51.45 for a five year term. If a cardholder doesn’t update their address within 14 days of moving, Service Alberta adds a $115 ticket. The chaotic nature of many people’s lives means remembering to update an address (if they have one) and avoid a ticket can be challenging.

The process of getting ID itself can be difficult. While it is easy to update ID online for those of us who already have it (as well as a credit card), getting new documents (often without internet access) is not as straightforward. As the same 2011 Alberta report writers noted:

Many people face challenges in their attempts to complete application forms, influenced by literacy, language, culture and cognitive factors. Community agency staff dedicate a significant amount of time helping people through this process. The concern is that people will drop out of the application process and miss the opportunity to access benefits for which they are eligible.

Unfortunately, some kind of ID is required to open a bank account and access just about any social service. The different types of ID can also cause problems, as a 2007 Toronto survey discovered:

Among our survey respondents, 50 percent did not have a Social Insurance Number card and 29 percent did not have identification that provides proof of citizenship, such as a birth certificate, citizenship card, record of landing and passport. While not having a health card can prevent people from accessing health care, lack of a Social Insurance Number can stop people from accessing income support, training, housing, and from getting a job. Citizenship documents are particularly important, because they enable people to apply for all other pieces of identification.  

A 2004 U.S. survey found similar results amongst people experiencing homeless who lacked ID:

  • 51.1% were denied Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits
  • 30.6% were denied Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) benefits
  • 53.1% were denied food stamps
  • 54.1% were denied access to shelters or housing services
  • 45.1% were denied access to Medicaid or medical services

Lacking photo ID can also lead to problems with law enforcement, with 59.8% of respondents reporting that they experienced harassment or arrest when they could not produce an ID. Another 8% said that police confiscated their ID.

When it comes to housing, ID has long been highlighted as a significant barrier. 11% of respondents to the 2007 Street Health survey in Toronto said they were unable to access housing due to a lack of ID.

To apply for social housing, applicants generally need proof of identity and proof of status in Canada. Each municipality and province/territory outlines what ID they will accept, and some permit letters from organizations or referees – but the best way to ensure ID won’t be challenged is to also obtain government-issued photo identification. Waiting lists are mostly first-come, first-served with some groups considered priority applicants – so getting an application in as soon as possible is crucial.

How can people experiencing homelessness get ID?

A 2013 United Way policy report proposed a number of changes to help people experiencing homelessness in Alberta get ID, including: waiving fees for people below the low-income cutoff and allowing people leaving incarceration to retrieve at least one piece of ID. These changes would greatly improve access for a number of people experiencing homelessness, and are a step in the right direction.

In the meantime, many people connect with housing or social workers at community-based organizations for help with getting ID. In urban centres, there are often ID-specific services for people experiencing homelessness. The Partners for Access and Identification Project is a Toronto-wide initiative that helps people get certain types of ID – mostly replacements. Street Health both helps people get ID and stores it for them safely.

Ultimately, ID alone is rarely a single barrier to housing. People experiencing homelessness in general have “low renter capital” and often miss many of the things that property owners require: good credit reports (or credit at all), references, and so on. It is a symptom of so many other issues related to homelessness: lack of storage, limited access to information and internet, and all the other vulnerabilities that come with living in poverty.

Photo credit: Center for Justice and Social Compassion

This post is part of our Friday "Ask the Hub" blog series. Have a homeless-related question you want answered? E-mail us at and we will provide a research-based answer.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)
June 15, 2016

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, and 2-Spirit [1] (LGBTQ2S) youth are disproportionately represented amongst homeless youth populations across the globe. Approximately 25-40% of youth experiencing homelessness in North America identify as LGBTQ2S (Abramovich, 2012; Ray, 2006; Cochran et al., 2002). However, it is difficult to know exactly how many LGBTQ2S youth are experiencing homelessness at any given point in time, for a variety of reasons. For example, support services, shelters, and street needs assessments often do not include questions about LGBTQ2S identity, and if they do, many queer and trans youth may not feel safe disclosing their gender or sexual identities, due to safety concerns. Hidden homelessness is also a significant concern for LGBTQ2S youth, especially those living in rural communities, making it highly unlikely that they would be included in statistics and key reports on youth homelessness. 

Identity-based family conflict resulting from a young person coming out as LGBTQ2S is a major contributing factor to youth homelessness (Abramovich, 2012; Quintana, et al., 2010; Ray, 2006). LGBTQ2S youth are particularly vulnerable to mental health concerns, and face increased risk of physical & sexual exploitation, substance use & suicide (Denomme-Welch et al., 2008; Ray 2006). Transgender youth have needs that are distinct from those of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. For example, they may need transition related health care, including access to hormones or surgery, or help getting ID and legal name change sorted out. Shelter workers tend to struggle most with issues regarding access to services for trans and gender non-conforming youth.

Through my research, I have found that factors such as institutional erasure, homophobic and transphobic violence that is rarely dealt with, and discrimination make it difficult for LGBTQ2 youth experiencing homelessness to access shelters, resulting in queer and trans youth feeling safer on the streets than in shelters and support services.

Family rejection, inadequate social services, and discrimination in housing, employment, and education make it difficult for LGBTQ2S youth to secure safe and affirming places to live. Widespread homophobic and transphobic discrimination and violence in shelters and housing programs have resulted in an underrepresentation of LGBTQ2S youth accessing such programs. The need for LGBTQ2S specific services and housing options has been left unaddressed and unmet for far too long.

Even though it has been known for over two decades that LGBTQ2S youth are overrepresented amongst homeless youth and often feel unsafe in emergency shelters and housing programs; this issue has only recently entered important dialogue on youth homelessness, both nationally and internationally. It has taken many years to convince key decision makers that targeted responses and specialized housing options are necessary in order to meet the needs of this population of young people.

When I first started addressing the issue of LGBTQ2S youth homelessness approximately ten years ago, there was minimal discussion and interest related to this issue. Over the years, I have witnessed a significant shift regarding people’s understanding of LGBTQ2S youth homelessness and people’s willingness to discuss and address these problems. For example, Canada’s first transitional housing program for LGBTQ2S youth recently opened in Toronto; an essential service that has been long awaited for by young people and advocates across the country.

We have also seen new policies and standards, and both Municipal and Provincial government have started to respond to these issues. In 2015, I worked with the Government of Alberta to develop a strategy to meet the needs of LGBTQ2S youth across the province of Alberta. This work was grounded in research, community led, integrated throughout the Alberta youth plan, and rural and urban in focus. In response to some data that was collected at the beginning of this project, and to encourage interagency collaboration and build partnerships amongst services, one of the first steps included developing a provincial LGBTQ2S working group. It is essential for communities and young people to be involved in the development of strategies and services that are meant to support them.

A Focused Response to Prevent and End LGBTQ2S Youth Homelessness - Key recommendations for Alberta

My final report to the Government of Alberta culminated in six key recommendations that were developed with the support of the Provincial LGBTQ2S Working Group, whom were engaged every step of the way. The recommendations align with and support the Alberta Youth Plan, and are reflective of current needs of the youth serving sector, including housing programs and shelters, across the province. These core recommendations are:

  1. Support the delivery of LGBTQ2S specific housing options (*development of new housing options and/or refinement of existing housing options).
  2. Support the delivery of population-based programs for LGBTQ2S youth that foster an intersectional approach (*development of new programs and/or programs within existing services).
  3. Create provincial housing/shelter standards that focus on working with and meeting the needs of LGBTQ2S young people.
  4. Develop integrated, provincial training solutions for expanded staff training for all aspects of LGBTQ2S cultural competency.
  5. Develop a prevention plan that emphasizes strategies on early intervention, awareness raising, and programs for children, youth, and families.
  6. Develop the capacity for research that frames new approaches and solutions to LGBTQ2S Youth Homelessness.

The recommendations emphasize the importance of working across government and sectors, as well as engaging with the communities and young people affected most by these issues, in building solutions. The core recommendations develop a standardized model of care, which will: (a) help meet the needs of LGBTQ2S youth at risk of or experiencing homelessness in Alberta; and (b) ensure that this population of young people are served more appropriately across the province. Most importantly, these recommendations will help design an effective systemic response to LGBTQ2S youth homelessness.

LGBTQ2S youth need to be prioritized because the common one size fits all approach does not actually work, because we know that one size does not fit all. If we are going to appropriately respond to youth homelessness, we need targeted responses for specific sub-populations of young people that are disproportionately represented amongst homeless youth. 

Although it has taken many years to convince key decision makers to take action, we are starting to see innovative practice and policy changes, and this issue is finally starting to receive the attention that it so desperately requires. But there is still much work to be done, so, may we continue the important fight to end LGBTQ2S youth homelessness globally.


Abramovich, I.A. (2012).  No safe place to go: LGBTQ youth homelessness in Canada-Reviewing the literature. Canadian Journal of Family and Youth, 4(1), 29-51. 
Cochran, B. N., Stewart, A. J., Ginzler, J. A., & Cauce, A. M.  (2002). 
Challenges faced by homeless sexual minorities: Comparison of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender homeless adolescents with their heterosexual counterpartsAmerican Journal of Public Health, 92(5), 773-777.
Ray, N.  (2006).  Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth: an epidemic of homelessness.  Retrieved from
Quintana, N. S., Rosenthal, J., & Krehely, J.  (2010).  On the streets: The federal response to gay and transgender homeless youth.  Retrieved from
Denomme-Welch, S., Pyne, J., & Scanlon, K.  (2008).  Invisible men: FTMs and homelessness in Toronto. Retrieved from

[1] This term is culturally specific to people of Aboriginal ancestry and refers to Aboriginal people who identify with both a male and female spirit. This term is not exclusive to gender identity, and can also refer to sexual orientation, and cultural identity.

This post was republished with permission from FEANTSA's Homeless in Europe - Spring 2016 magazine.


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The analysis and interpretations contained in the blog posts are those of the individual contributors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Canadian Observatory on Homelessness.