Research Matters Blog

Canadian Observatory on Homelessness/Homeless Hub; York University
November 24, 2014
Categories: Solutions

One of the best methods of determining progress is through the use of Point-In-Time (PIT) Counts. Alternatively referred to as “Street Counts”, “Homeless Counts” or “Street Needs Assessments” PIT Counts are a measure of the number of homeless people on a specific day (hence the point in time reference). This type of counting is known as “taking a snapshot” of the situation. Some communities do a strict inventory of beds and occupancy rates in homeless shelters. Other communities include women and children living in Violence Against Women (VAW) shelters and people staying in hospitals or jails with no fixed address.

Some municipalities go even further by developing a questionnaire to ask people experiencing homelessness about their history, background and needs. This includes demographic questions such as age, gender, race, sexual orientation and veteran status. It also asks what services people need or use, whether they would like housing and how long they have been homeless.

See our section on "How to conduct counts" to find resources on methods, challenges, and best practices in conducting a homeless count.

You can also find the latest homeless count reports for your community in our "Community Profiles" section.

York University
November 21, 2014
Categories: Ask the Hub

“When you see injustice – do something about it” (Robert Moses)

We recently returned from the Canadian Alliance to End Homelessness’ National Conference on Ending Homelessness. What an amazing week! Surrounded by enthusiastic, smart, committed people – people with lived experience, researchers, politicians, practitioners, community members - all working together to do something about homelessness. This isn’t a celebration of just how wonderful we all are, of course, but rather a chance to move the agenda forward because we all understand that there is still so much to do.    

Nevertheless, we want to comment on some of the highlights of the conference. 

  1. Research presentations – There were so many outstanding papers and sessions focusing on research that has real implications for policy and practice.  One that stands out was the session on “Homelessness Prevention” (the new frontier, as far as we are concerned), with great presentations from Kathy Kovacs-Burns, Amanda Noble, Cordelia Abankwa, and Deborah Rutman. Another session I enjoyed was one on “Measuring Progress to End Homelessness”, with Abra Adamo, Ron Kneebone and Jill Atkey. Who knew economists could be so funny (Ron) and interesting? There were many more great sessions, but we couldn’t get to them all of course. The point is that the research community is showing its value by contributing conceptual and evaluative research that will make a difference.

  2. Focus on Youth Homelessness – One gets a real sense that we are at an important turning point in how we can and should deal with youth homelessness.  The special conference focus on youth homelessness (both the pre-conference session plus the panels during the conference) emphasized the degree to which we need solutions to youth homelessness that take account of the special needs of adolescents and young adults.  The sessions highlighted what we know about effective plans to end youth homelessness, the adaptation of Housing First to meet the needs of young people, and important innovations that are happening across the country.  There was also a call to take on youth homelessness at the national, regional and local levels through a new “Coalition to End Youth Homelessness”. The enthusiasm for all of this was best expressed through the packed rooms (standing room only, people watching from the hallways) for virtually all of the youth sessions. People are ready for action – we know what we need to do, now lets do it! 

  3. People with Lived Experience – There was a real effort to include people with lived experience in this conference, in a way that was both respectful and meaningful.  The pre-conference session entitled “Nothing about us, without us: People with lived experience taking leadership to end homelessness” explored ways of bringing lived expertise to the center of service delivery, research and advocacy.  The great group of people involved in this session are holding everyone in the sector to account to ensure that the voices of those who are too often marginalized and ignored are heard and respected.  Specifically, the group came up with 7 principles to guide the work of the sector.

    These are:

    a. Bring the perspectives of our lived experience to the forefront;

    b. Include people with lived experience at all levels of the organization;

    c. Value our time and provide appropriate supports;

    d. Challenge stigma, confront oppression and promote dignity;

    e. Recognize our expertise and engage us un decision-making;

    f. Work towards our equitable representation;

    g. Build authentic relationships between people with lived experience and without lived experience.

    Stay tuned, because this group has plans to expand on these principles over the coming year!

  4. Photo of the Homeless Hub booth at the conference.Relationship building – One of the things that is going to help move things forward in ending homelessness is the opportunity to share and collaborate.  The large and diverse group of conference attendees included a cross section of service providers, people with lived experience, researchers, policy makers and community members. The presentations, workshops and even private conversations demonstrate the great work that is taking place in the sector. As we move forward, we will need to consider strategies of inclusion to ensure that more Aboriginal people, racialized minorities and members of other marginalized groups play a leading role in setting the agenda and participate in this relationship building.

  5. Canadian Observatory on Homelessness/Homeless Hub table – This next one might only be a highlight for us, but we’re going to mention it nonetheless: the Homeless Hub booth was a huge success! We had so many visitors and received so much positive feedback about the work we do…plus we sold a ton of books! As a result, we have to thank all of you for making the conference so worthwhile and memorable for us!

A fantastic week! It’s clear to everyone, however, that no matter how great this conference was, we’re nowhere near done. Homelessness continues to be a crisis in Canada. The silver lining was very visible at the conference: there is a bright, committed and tireless group of people working towards the solutions that will bring an end to homelessness in this country. We are honoured to be a part of that circle and to work closely with many of you.


University of Toronto, OISE
November 20, 2014

Transgender Day of Remembrance (TDOR) held annually on November 20, is a day that is meant to memorialize transgender people who were killed or have died due to anti-transgender hatred and violence. It also raises public awareness of the violent reality that so many trans and gender non-conforming people face on a daily basis.

Every year, new names are added to the memorial list of trans people who have been killed due to transphobia. This year, on November 20, 2014 at 3pm, the City of Toronto will recognize TDOR for the first time by raising the trans flag at Toronto City Hall.

Transphobia destroys people's lives. It is dangerous, toxic, violent, and leads to suicide. Transphobia kills, period.Transphobia destroys people’s lives.

It is dangerous, toxic, violent, and leads to suicide.

Transphobia kills, period.

Discrimination and violence against transgender individuals is rampant.

Trans people face disproportionately high rates of victimization, unemployment, health inequities, and suicidality. Trans people of colour, especially trans women of colour face the highest rates of violence and discrimination.

The Trans PULSE project, a large Canadian study that investigated health and trans people in Ontario, found that 77% of trans people had seriously considered suicide, and that 45% had attempted suicide. Trans youth were found to be at the greatest risk of suicidality. The high rates of suicide are extremely alarming, especially during the early stages of gender transition, which is when trans people are at greatest risk of suicide. The early stages of transition are also when young people are often kicked out of the house or forced to leave home.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, transgender, queer, questioning, and 2-Spirit (LGBTQ2S) youth are overrepresented in the homeless youth population: 25-40% of homeless youth identify as LGBTQ2S. Although there are disproportionately high rates of LGBTQ2S youth experiencing homelessness, there is minimal support available, and support services and shelters often further marginalize this population of young people.

Trans and gender non-conforming youth are frequently rejected by shelters based on their gender identity and are regularly not permitted to access the shelter that matches the gender with which they identify because shelters frequently do not feel equipped to support trans youth. This forces trans youth to stay in a shelter that is not consistent with their gender identity, or to avoid the shelter system altogether.

Regardless of shelter standards and shelter policies, frontline workers struggle most with issues regarding access to services and support for trans people, and shelter staff tend to receive minimal training regarding trans-related issues, needs, and terminology. Staff often do not have an understanding of the importance of asking youth what pronoun and name they prefer, or that trans people can also identify as heterosexual and do not always fit under the umbrella term “queer”.

There is a type of normalization of trans oppression that occurs in the shelter system. Even though major emphasis is placed on access and the ability to access shelters with as few barriers as possible, regardless of people’s gender and sexual identities, it has somehow come to be accepted that not all shelters can accommodate trans and gender non-conforming individuals.

Institutional rules and policies that do not consider trans people often end up erasing trans people from existence.Shelters are often segregated by female and male floors, which have female and male bathrooms and showers. The floor that a person will be placed on has more to do with the staff’s perception of a person’s sex and less to do with how an individual actually identifies, which is highly problematic because not all individuals’ gender identity is congruent with the sex assigned to them at birth. For example, if someone presents as more gender ambiguous, then whatever the staff member perceives their sex to be, is what floor they will be placed on. This increases the risk for gender discrimination and gender violence to occur within shelters. It also creates significant barriers to access for genderqueer and gender non-conforming individuals, and individuals who are in the early stages of their transition.

The need for transgender youth to have access to health care professionals who have a comprehensive understanding of trans-related issues and transition-related health care is crucial. The health care needs of trans youth differ from those of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, whether they are experiencing homelessness or not. For example, trans youth may need transition related health care, including access to hormones or surgery, or help getting ID and legal name change sorted out. The lack of specialized health care services for trans youth often results in youth turning to unmonitored street suppliers for transition-related treatment, which can have severe health complications (Quintana et al., 2010). The complexity of these needs intensifies when one is homeless and does not have money, a health card, or a support network.

Being a young person is scary, regardless of your sexual or gender identity. Being a young person who deviates from the norm is terrifying because our culture pathologizes almost every feeling and behaviour that human beings are capable of expressing. The extreme pathologization of gender makes it even more difficult for people to bring their full authentic selves to programs and support services, and to come out as transgender.

Trans and gender non-conforming youth are frequently rejected by shelters based on their gender identity.Solutions to these issues include practice and policy changes, but first and foremost, people must be respected and treated in their self-identified gender. For example, if someone says that they identify as male, then address them with male pronouns. If someone says that they identify as female, then address them with female pronouns. If someone says that they identify as genderqueer and prefer gender-neutral pronouns, such as they, then address them using they.

Shelters and support services need to be equipped with gender-neutral washrooms. Single occupancy washrooms can be easily converted into a gender-neutral washroom by replacing the female and male silhouette signs with an all gender inclusive sign.

Taking the time to listen to trans youths’ perspectives and needs will help service providers create services that are safe, accessible, and supportive of trans and gender non-conforming youth.

On this day, the Transgender Day of Remembrance, take the time to honour the lives of those who have been killed as a result of anti-trans violence and hatred. Do your part to help end transphobia, not only on November 20, but every day.

Transphobia is an everyday reality for too many individuals.

Transphobia destroys people’s lives.

It is dangerous, toxic, violent, and leads to suicide.

Transphobia kills, period.

Photos credits: Flickr/cuppojoe_trips, hollylay, jkunz

York University; The Homeless Hub
November 19, 2014

Year after year, Canadian cities are ranked as some of the best cities in the world to live in. We’re proud to state that we have well-funded public school systems, universal healthcare coverage for citizens and permanent residents, and supports that see children through from birth to adulthood. However, when it comes to child poverty, Canada places 24th out of 35 industrialized countries*. Countries that have lower child poverty rates than Canada include France, Australia, and the United Kingdom. The below infographic, published by UNICEF Canada, illustrates that too many Canadian children live in poverty.

There are many barriers and care gaps that children living in poverty face compared to children from a financially secure household. Children living in poverty are more likely to face barriers to education, have difficulty obtaining safe and healthy nutritious foods, and live in poor housing conditions. 

Access to education and educational supports are a critical component of any strategy that looks to address child poverty. Education is one of the primary means through which upward social mobility can be achieved, breaking the cycle of poverty that may exist in many families.  By providing, and investing in children today, we lay the groundwork for their success in adulthood. Few of the factors associated with child poverty can be targeted in isolation without considering other holes in our social safety net. Barriers in accessing nutritious food translate into poor mental health outcomes. Poor mental health outcomes in turn can hinder a child’s ability to be successful over the course of their academic career.

These gaps are also filled by many organizations, including: recreational centers, educational initiatives and food banks. Research shows that government programs, like investments in child benefits, have been effective in addressing child poverty. UNICEF reports that Canada’s child poverty rate drops from 26% to 14%*after taxes and transfers. This is not to suggest in anyway that there is enough being done, but instead to commend existing programs and encourage support for expanding and building on these programs.

Canada needs to invest more into preventing child poverty. Allowing children to grow up in poverty, and failing to assist them in their goals and dreams for the future results in increases in social costs for the country. These costs can include increased social assistance provisions, more funds to be spent on courts and social protection, as well a need for more health and hospital services in the long-term. In many ways, preventing child poverty can be viewed as a prevention-focused means to bypass negative health and living outcomes in adulthood. Children living in poverty have the same right to safety and security, access to healthy foods, and well-being as any of their counterparts. Today’s children are tomorrow’s future; let’s work towards ending child poverty. 

Poverty - the one line we want our kids to cross.

*Updated numbers from the most recent UNICEF Report Card 12 find that Canada ranks 20th out of 41 nations on child poverty and child poverty rates fell from 23% in 2008 to 21% in 2011.

York University
November 17, 2014
Categories: Solutions

Intensive Case Management (ICM) teams are a team-based approach that supports individuals through a case management approach , the goal of which is to help clients maintain their housing and achieve an optimum quality of life through developing plans, enhancing life skills, addressing health and mental health needs, engaging in meaningful activities and building social and community relations. It has a moderately strong evidence base. It is designed for clients with lower acuity, but who are identified as needing intensive support for a shorter and time-delineated period.

The At Home/Chez Soi project has identified that for many clients, the first three months can be most challenging, and providing appropriate levels of support may be crucial for recovery and retention of housing.

The following are characteristics of ICM:

  • Participants’ needs will vary considerably with some individuals requiring minimum supports while others might require intensive supports for the rest of their lives.One-on-one case manager to client relationship using a recovery-oriented approach (the team of case managers many include Housing and Complementary Support Workers).
  • The case manager brokers access to mainstream services that the client identifies as needed to attain his or her goals.
  • The case manager often accompanies clients to meetings and appointments in support of their goals/needs.
  • Case managers are available on a regular schedule; caseloads are often shared to assure coverage of 7 days per week/12 hours a day.
  • The staff to client ratio is generally 1 case manager per 20 clients.
  • The duration of the service is determined by the needs of the client, with the goal of transitioning to mainstream services as soon as possible.

In the At Home/Chez Soi project, the average annual program costs (for housing and support) was $14,000 for ICM participants.

Based on the work of the Mental Health Commission of Canada. Excerpted from Housing First in Canada: Supporting Communities to End Homelessness.


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The analysis and interpretations contained in the blog posts are those of the individual contributors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Canadian Observatory on Homelessness.