Endaamnaan: Homes for All Nations

A First Nations Homelessness Literature Review

This review is an Assembly of First Nations (AFN) initiative to support a First Nations action plan through a systematic analysis of First Nations homelessness in Canada. This literature review identifies various gaps in research, influencing the need for First Nations-specific recommendations to address homelessness.

This literature review aims to address the following four areas of inquiry: 

  1. Understanding First Nations Homelessness: How are the concepts of home and homelessness understood? How do First Nations’ descriptions differ from Western definitions? What is the current state of First Nations homelessness in Canada? What are the various forms of First Nations homelessness?
  2. Experiences of First Nations Homelessness: How do First Nations people experience homelessness? How do factors such as location (on and off-reserve), migration, gender, and age impact experiences of homelessness?
  3. Factors Influencing Homelessness: Why are First Nations people overrepresented in the homelessness population? What are the root causes of this overrepresentation? How is homelessness for First Nations people connected to the legacy of residential schools, discrimination, colonization, intergenerational trauma, physical and mental health, and systemic racism and sexism?
  4. Approaches to First Nations Homelessness: What solutions or preventative strategies are there to address homelessness for First Nations people? What works? What are innovative ways to better understand and address homelessness among First Nations? 
Publication Date: 
Canadian Observatory on Homelessness Press