This review of the literature on rural homelessness is part of a larger study commissioned by the Alberta Centre for Child, Family and Community Research to support the research work of the Alberta Interagency Council on Homelessness. The researchers are complementing this literature review with case studies from 18 communities across Alberta, as well as interviews with key provincial stakeholders in a forthcoming report. This review sets out a framework on rural homelessness from an academic vantage point to contextualise ensuing analysis at the Alberta community level. We also provide an analysis of the research gaps emergent in the literature and recommend areas for future focus. Notably, the researchers are building on work commissioned by the Homelessness Partnering Strategy to examine homelessness in rural Canada across 22 communities.